Model Building As A Hobby

Building models is an interesting hobby for anyone. Any object may be replicated and downsized into miniatures. These models may be made or assembled with original designs and materials or factory manufactured kits.

Men and boys enjoy building vehicles, robots, and architectural buildings. Women and girls enjoy building with clay, paper products, and assembling a variety of commercial kits.

Childhood memories inspire our favorite pastimes to become our future hobbies or interests. These memories give us pleasure or reward us with relaxation, therapy, or an income opportunity.

Building models offer:

  1. An outlet for our arts and crafts talents and skills
  2. Challenges our creativity and imagination
  3. Freedom to explore and research
  4. Education
  5. Relaxation
  6. Recreation
  7. Therapy
  8. Building miniatures of our dreams and hopes
  9. Reward our abilities
  10. Pride in our accomplishments

Models are made with wood, plastics, metal, clay, paper products, foam, and other articles which become a part of or support a project.


  1. Balsa wood for building airplanes
  2. Melted plastic solutions poured into rubber molds
  3. Metals can be cut and welded or melted into molds
  4. Clay and paper mache are used for molding figurines, animals, plants and flowers, and décor items
  5. Paper products and foam may be cut and glued to create buildings and other objects

The object which you are duplicating may be made with one or several types of materials from assorted resources.


A decision has been made to build a doll house. The house can be constructed with wood, cardboard, or pasteboard. The interior of the house may require clay, plastics, metal, and other materials to create furniture, people, carpet, flooring, and other décor.

People who have an interest in building models are both artisans and craftsmen with creative and imaginative abilities. They also possess various trade skills with excellent eye and hand coordination.

Types of Models:

  1. Animals
  2. Accessories which support the main project
  3. Commercial buildings and industrial building communities – residential and business
  4. Entertainment characters from books, comics, movies, and television
  5. Flora and landscaping
  6. Houses
  7. Machinery and mechanical devices
  8. Natural wonders – volcanoes, mountains, canyons
  9. People
  10. Robots and other toys
  11. Vehicles – cars, trucks, boats, ships, rockets, space ships, military vehicles

As you can see from the above list, there is an endless list of model building projects. You have the choice of designing and creating an original duplicate from materials at hand, experimenting with plastics and metals, or assembling ready-made articles.

Model Construction:

The media which is being used will determine the order of construction, materials, and tools. These three-dimensional buildings, characters, or animals all require starting with their foundation, proceeding with their accessories, and finalizing the details

Essential skills:

  1. Knowledge and familiarity with the craft
  2. Research
  3. Creativity and imagination
  4. Patience
  5. Time
  6. Detail oriented
  7. Photos and drawings of projects
  8. Engineering abilities
  9. Knowing how to work required tools
  10. Finishing applications

If you have never participated in this hobby, start with a simple project. This is a fun and exciting hobby experience.

Adding Humor To Your Writing

1. Humor brightens the written word. That’s no surprise. The good news is that the ability to create humor is a learned skill. There are ways of thinking and there are certain writing structures that make the funny lines resonate with your readers.

2. A great place to start is by focusing your humor radar and learning to think funny. Expose yourself to humor books, tapes, movies. Visit toy stores. Hang around funny friends.

3. Keep a journal of funny things that happen to you. Your best source of humor is your personal stories. Stories are the best way to touch your readers and the easiest way to create humor.

4. When creating humor for a written piece, keep in mind that coming up with a funny line is a numbers game. If you want two funny lines for a piece, write 20 lines. Or maybe 40. Just when you think you’ve burned out on funny ideas, you’ll write your best line.

5. At the core of nearly every joke (especially true for written jokes which do not have the physical delivery factor that enhances spoken humor) is a relationship between two things or ideas. The relationship usually connects two previously unrelated items. For example, Gary Larson cartoons often relate animals with human characteristics. In one cartoon, all the patrons in a restaurant are snakes. One of the snakes at the table in the background is twisted and in an unusual position. Two snakes at a table in the foreground and talking about the unusual body language of the snake at the other table. “Oh, honey, he’s just signing.” He is referring to using sign language for the deaf. The technique: Making a link with human characteristic which you would not normally associate with snakes.

6. To make humorous connections, use the laundry-list technique. If you’re writing a piece on how nurses have a challenging job, you might start with the premise that working in a hospital is like working in a combat zone. Then you create two lists. One list for hospital-related things. Another list for military-related things. And then you look for similarities and contrasts between the two lists. You might come up with a line like: “After an upper GI exam, you get the GI Bill.” Or, “When completing a shift report you sometimes resort to Don’t-Ask-Don’t-Tell.”

7. Keep in mind that the element of surprise, one of the key elements that make humor tick, demands that you keep the punchline and punchword (the word that triggers the joke) at the end of the joke. If you fail to place the punchword at the very end, you run the risk of smothering it and hiding the humor.

8. Use punctuation for the pacing and timing of your humor. If you were speaking the humor line, you would use a pause. When writing, use a dash to accentuate the punch word. Or use the ellipsis. For example, the classic Henny Youngman line would look like: “Take my wife…please!”

9. Practice writing jokes to a theme. For example, what if Hillary Clinton were elected President. Or ten reasons why Las Vegas is like Disneyland. Or by writing captions for cartoons. The practice is like going to the gym. The more you write, your writing skills become stronger. That applies to humor writing too. Jest wishes for fun writing and many laughs.

Copyright 2005 John Kinde

Music And Plant Growth

Do you enjoy listening to music? Do you know that music is more than a choice of entertainment for humans? Some cultures have used music in enhancing the health and balance of mind and body. Studies showed that music play an important role in the human body, mind and spirit. These modern studies have documented that specific sounds and music are beneficial in healing since cycle and rhythm are essential in the human’s breathing and pulses. The synchronicity and rhythm pattern of music affects the way the body works.

Since 1950s, music therapy using classical music has been recognized and used for multiple disorders, depression, upset stomach, fatigue, cancer, migraines and even stress. It showed that music reduces breathing rate, heart rate, blood pressure, anxiety and stress. The latest findings showed that music helps in mental disorders as well. The amazing influences of music to humans have brought interesting studies in music therapy.

Certain music like the rock and roll and classical music were experimented on plants. The effects of the certain music have an effect on the growth of plants. The similar effects of the classical music on humans were seen on plants as well. Classical music has influenced faster growth on plants. On the other hand, the rock and roll music deteriorated the growth of the plants.

However, it is still essential that the basic needs of plants must still be provided. Many plant enthusiasts must understand that plants can be attacked by predators when plants are distressed. The distress signals from plants can be sensed by these insects inviting them to prey on them. To avoid this kind of situation, it is essential to provide the plants with a healthy environment they need.

Providing plants with clean air, water and healthy soil is important in plant growth. Health balance is a focus that must not be overlooked whenever the plant’s growth is the concern. After putting all the essentials of the plants, putting some music therapy in action can be an addition.

For music therapy on plants, it has been found that classical music is preferred than loud music. Most plant growers who apply music therapy for their kind of vegetation use the classical music for its soothing effects found in plants. However, some has discovered the use of the Indian original called Shenai. It is the kind of music from its origin that is designed to improve the earth’s health and energy.

You can try it too in your own garden. Just remember, you will never go wrong when you provide the healthy environment of plants first and provide them with the music of either classical or Shenai. Moreover, music with the healthy vegetation environment will surely keep your plants happy, they will never give off the distress signals calling on those predators and you will enjoy reaping your hard work as a result.

Adult Theme Party Ideas

Who said theme parties are just for kids?

I’ve picked out the most popular party themes for adults, sure to bring out the “kid” in you. If you are looking to host a party that is sure to go over well, check out the tried-and-true party ideas below.

Hawaiian Luau Party

Welcome each guest with an “aloha” and a kiss on the cheek. Hand a lei to all guests, and a silk flower for the women to put in their hair. Think balmy and exotic! Bright and colorful is sure to set a tropical ambiance.

The best drinks include Margaritas, Mai Tais, Pina Coladas, Bahama Mamas, and Frozen Daiquiris. Be sure to have Hawaiian punch on hand for the non-alcoholic set as well as water for all. Be sure to have a limbo contest to see “how low can you go” and a hula contest for great fun.

Wine Tasting Party

A wine tasting party doesn’t have to be reserved for the well-versed wine connoisseur. Get your friends together for an informal potluck party, with each guest bringing his/her favorite wine. Food should be simple appetizers as well as cheese and bread. Provide index cards for guests to rate their favorites.

Bunco Party Theme

Bunco is a great game is rapidly taking over in our living rooms. It’s not your grandmother’s canasta game! Bunco allows for regular get-togethers with family, friends, and neighbors as you can meet on a monthly basis, while rotating hosts. It’s fast paced and gets you mixing with all players (usually 12) as you rotate from table to table.

Fortune Telling Theme

I see a fun theme party in your future…

A gypsy type garb is perfect for a fortune telling party. Complete your outfit with scarves, lots of bangle type bracelets, and hoop earrings. Have a least one table with a crystal ball. If you can’t find one, you can always use a large snow globe of some kind.

Other great games include a Ouija board and Magic Eight ball.

Mexican Fiesta

Go “South of the border” for a festive theme party. Great decorations include inflatable cactus, chili peppers, boots, and sombreros. The signature drinks for a fiesta party are margaritas and Corona beer. Be sure to play plenty of fiesta music as you shake your maracas!

Casino/Las Vegas Night

The central theme is friendly gambling- either for prizes or just for fun. The most popular games tend to be blackjack and poker. For the non-gambling type, include simple games like bingo and other popular card games.

Give each guest poker chips, play money, and dice when they arrive. Great decorations include hanging fuzzy dice and lots of black and red balloons. For a Las Vegas style nightlife effect, add plenty of glow products.

Decade Party (50’s, 60’s, 70’s, 80’s)

Decade theme parties are extremely popular and can be also be used for themed birthday parties as well. Guests have lots of fun dressing in outfits from their high school and college days.

Flowered pants, peace signs, and John Lennon glasses are great for a 60’s theme.

Bell-bottom Levi’s or Wranglers are great for that 70’s party- or go all out with your leisure suit.

Punk wigs, mezpahs, and jelly bracelets are great for a retro 80’s look.

Dinner Party

There are many options for putting together a great dinner party. Depending on your own style, the dinner party can range from casual and entertaining, to gourmet and polished. The three most popular types of dinner parties tend to be dessert, cocktail, or international food themed.

For a more casual party, use a potluck style. Guest can bring along a dish of their choice. This can be a full course American meal or international cuisine. You can choose to be dessert or cocktail party specific.

Magic Theme Party

Planning a magic party doesn’t have to be “tricky” after all. Go all out with your black top hat and magic wand as you get your guests to learn simple card tricks. Tricks can range from easy to more special effects.

Great decorations include hanging black top hats and lots of black and red balloons. For a magical effect, add plenty of glow products.

Western Theme Party

Think rustic and hearty!

Old lanterns, jugs, and bales of hay make great decorations. You can also use kerosene lamps and washtubs as accents. A game of horseshoes next to a roaring bonfire is a great activity for socializing. Sing-along western songs can liven up the bunch, and karaoke takes cowboy tunes to a new dimension. Games to play can include competitions in roping, or using a lasso to catch an object.

I hope these ideas helped spark some ideas for your upcoming theme party. Have a sensational celebration!

Get Your Free MP3 Ringtones On Your Phone

Step One to “Ringtone Freedom”

Get your phone equipped with a microSD card.

Hook phone to computer with USB cable (should be Windows-Linux is possible but not specific to this tutorial).

Create a folder in the microSD storage labeled something like “Ringtones” (can be accessed through “My Computer”).

Create a temporary folder on your desktop labeled something like “Ringtones”, which is where we will put the finished products of this process until we transfer it all to your phone.

Step Two to “Ringtone Freedom”

Download and install “Format Factory”

This will allow us to convert our “. mp3” ringtones to a uniform state.

Step Three to “Ringtone Freedom”

Visit the website Audiko – It is completely FREE – No hidden “catch” (so far, so good)

I recommend creating an account so that you can save a library of your ringtones. Unlike some, Audiko does not ask for your phone number at all (I somehow feel safer about this). HOWEVER, you can use all the site features without registering at all.

Audiko is stellar for two reasons:

First-You can upload any of your own music from your computer/phone/other storage devices and use their super easy (compared to other’s out there) ringtone creator. If you have an account, the ringtone will be saved. Otherwise its a one time shot. MAKE SURE that you download the non-Iphone version (which translates into the. mp3 version) and make sure you download it to your COMPUTER (remember that temporary folder we made in “Step One” on the desktop).

Second-You can search their entire library of popular music ringtones and download them (if you do not have an account) or save them to your account library to download now or later. Our ultimate goal, however, is to get some tester tones downloaded to our temporary folder on the desktop. Pick three and try making say, one or two of your own.

Step Four to “Ringtone Freedom”

At this point, I assume that we have a few tester tones in the temporary folder on the desktop (see “Step One”) and that we have downloaded and installed Format Factory.

Open Format Factory and our temporary desktop folder-Size the windows so it is comfortable to see both of them side by side.

“Drag and Drop” our tester mp3s into the empty list area of Format Factory.

A prompt will appear asking what you want to convert our tester files to. You will choose “all to mp3”. Yes, we are converting “mp3s” to “mp3s”. The point is to make them all uniform and, for reasons unknown to me at this point, it just makes them work with this process better and more accurately.

Now, press start.

When finished, click on the “output folder” icon in the top right corner to open the location of your new mp3s.

We are now done with Format Factory, and it may be closed.

Step Five to “Ringtone Freedom”

In our temporary desktop folder, create a new folder titled something like “Converted”. Relocated all the original testers in to that folder.

Take the converted files (remember the “Output Folder”), and place them in the temporary desktop folder. This keeps everything together and better organized.

Now, the next step is CRUCIAL. We will rename the file extensions from “. mp3” to “.3g2”

IMPORTANT: Your computer will throw a fit. It will ask you each time you rename the file extension whether you really want to do this because the file may become unusable (on the PC, yes, but on your LG Rumor Touch (Sprint or Virgin Mobile), NO).

ADVANCED NOTE: For those of you who are grumbling to yourself about having to rename files yourself one by one, I recommend downloading “File Renamer Basic”. I use it, and it works fast and easy. Of course, it is also free!

Step Six to “Ringtone Freedom”

We are on the home stretch-Hang in there!

At this point, we should have closed out Format Factory, renamed our converted mp3s to 3g2 file extension, and preserved our original testers in another folder.

We also still have our phone connected to the computer through USB.

On the computer, go to “My Computer” and navigate to the “Mass Storage” device (aka, our microSD card) to bring up the folder “Ringtones” (see “Step One”) we made earlier.

Drag and Drop the converted and renamed ringtone files from the desktop folder to the folder on the microSD card.

When the transfer is finished, you may close all the windows and disconnect your phone from the PC.

Step Seven to “Ringtone Freedom” (Last One)

At this point, I assume that you have knowledge of how to navigate the various features and settings of the LG Rumor Touch (Sprint or Virgin Mobile).

On your phone, access “Mass

Manager”——->”Your Ringtone Folder”

Once in your “Ringtone” folder, our first step is to TEST that the phone will play the ringtone, which by the way, the phone reads as a “Video Ringtone”.

Press one of your finished tones and try to play it. If it plays, we are in business. If not, something went wrong and you may want to repeat this process until you get a file that does play.

Assuming that the tone played, <—-arrow back to the regular file manager list of your finished tones. Select MORE in the bottom right corner, and from that list, select COPY MULTIPLE. Press (my phone highlights them in red) any that you want to test (one is enough for the first go).

Select COPY TO IN PHONE from the bottom left of the screen once you’ve decided which tone to try first. Unfortunately, the phone renames the file when it moves it from the microSD card to the phone memory. If it copies fine, then move on to the next steps. If not, try another one of your testers, and if they also do not copy, you may need to go back through the process again.

Now that we’ve copied our ringtone to our phone, it may be assigned from the category “My Videos” when choosing a unique tone for a contact or when setting ringer settings for the whole phone.

IMPORTANT NOTE: If you decide that you want to delete a tone you’ve copied to your phone for space reasons, go to PHOTOS + VIDEOS——>MY PHOTOS + VIDEOS—–IN PHONE——>VIEW—–>MEDIA FILTER——->Videos. You can delete from here. You may also rename files here too (remember the phone changes the original file name when copied…)

Cake And Cookie Baking Tips For Beginners

Are you new to baking cakes and cookies? Not sure how to read and follow recipes? Here are some baking tips to get you started.

All ingredients should be at cool room temperature.

Unless the recipe states otherwise, use unsalted butter. If you have only salted butter on hand, reduce the amount of salt in the recipe by 1/4 teaspoon per stick of butter. Use regular butter, not whipped, and don’t substitute margarine unless the recipe gives it as an alternative.

Unless otherwise stated, eggs used in baking recipes should be the large size.

Use dry measures for dry ingredients and wet measures for liquid ingredients. Measuring cups for dry ingredients come in individual sizes (1/4 cup, 1/3 cup, 1/2 cup, 1 cup). You fill the cup completely with the flour or other dry ingredient and level it off. Liquid measures are marked with lines for various amounts (1/3 cup, 4 ounces, etc.), with some space at the top so the liquid doesn’t spill. You pour the liquid in up to the desired line.

To measure flour, stir up the flour, then swoop the measuring cup into the flour, and level the flour even with the top of the cup using a knife or the side of your hand. To measure sugar or cocoa, spoon it into the cup. To measure brown sugar, spoon it into the cup and pack it down with the back of the spoon. When measuring sticky ingredients such as molasses or honey, lightly oil the inside of the cup first.

You must sift flour for cakes and confectioners’ sugar when you’re using it in icing. For cakes, sift the flour, measure it, then sift it again with the dry ingredients. You don’t need to sift flour for pies or most cookies.

Chocolate must be melted over low heat or it will burn. You can melt it in the top of a double boiler (a pan with two parts; the top sits in the bottom pan, which contains boiling water). You can also put it in a microwave-proof container and heat on 80 percent power for 1 minute. It should still be lumpy when you remove it; keep stirring until it is smooth. If it is still lumpy, return it to the microwave and heat in 10-second increments on 80 percent power until smooth.

To cream butter (with or without the sugar), beat it at high speed on an electric mixer for about 2 minutes, or until it is fluffy.

If a recipe tells you to fold in egg whites or cream, it means to spoon the egg whites or cream over the batter, then move a rubber spatula in a circular motion from the bottom of the bowl to the top of the batter, “folding” in the whites or cream. You can also use a wire whisk to gently whisk in the eggs or cream.

Use the size of pans indicated in the recipe.

Always turn the oven on for at least 15 minutes before you will be using it, so it has time to reach the proper temperature.

Baking (cookie) sheets come with and without sides. Some recipes refer to a baking sheet with sides as a jelly-roll pan. Cookies bake the most evenly on a cookie sheet without sides, but it’s OK to use one with sides.

Space drop cookies at least 1 1/2 inches apart on the baking sheet so they have room to spread.

Most cookies should cool on the baking sheets for a minute or two to “set” before they’re removed to wire racks to cool completely. Cakes should cool completely in the pan before being inverted onto a plate or cardboard round. Run a knife between the cake and the sides of the pan first to loosen it.

History Of The Toy Gun

Sometime after 1865, proceeding the civil war, manufactures who had found success designing and building war weapons and ammunition, made a few changes to their factories and began to build cap guns instead. In a sense, it could be said that these guns were born out of economic necessity. The military focused factories which had been running full force during the war were in big trouble once their services were no longer needed. The toy gun saved these factories and its workers.

The cap guns were realistic, but instead of shooting bullets, they excepted small harmless pouches of gun powder, which would make a small bang when the hammer dropped. Kids quickly picked up on the imagination and fantasy these role play aids offered, and the toy gun became an instant favorite among kids all over.

While the guns themselves were reasonably priced, just about anyone could afford the individual caps, which lent themselves to their own fun. The kids who didn’t have enough allowance for a gun, bought only the caps, and used a simple rock to set them off. The kids who spent all their money on the gun, but couldn’t afford the caps, adapted to yelling “bang bang” at the sight of a target.

One of the best things about a child’s imagination, is just about anything can be made into a toy gun, including a stick, a banana, a block of wood, or when times got really tough, their own finger. Unlike the electronic toys of today, just about anyone could join a friendly match of toy gun play, rich or poor.

During the next several decades, some experts claim toy guns taught kids about the responsibility of gun ownership, helped prepared them to serve their country, and gave them the understanding of how to protect their home and family. But most of all, their presence has offered valuable lessons on communicating with others, sharing, using imagination, and working in a team environment.

Through the next several years, toy guns would evolve from their original wood and metal frames, to plastic, to colored plastics. Interestingly, this toy has helped lead the way to some of the modern designs of adult guns we see today.

For instance, these guns for kids were the first to be made out of plastic compounds, but it did not take long for manufactures to see the practicality of making real guns out of plastic. At this point, manufactures started to making toy guns out of brightly colored plastics and foam, to distinguish their playful nature from their adult counterparts.

While toy guns are no longer the realistic replicas they once were, they are also more affordable, safer, and offer just as much opportunity for kids to engage in friendly war play, learning the very same responsibilities that have passed down from generation to generation. While toy guns have fought off their fair share of anti-gun sentiment, they are still just as popular and fun for kids today, as they ever were.

Female Form Photography

I don’t think that it’s any secret that the female form or body has been attractive to men for many, many moons. Sexual attraction may be the first thing to come to mind, however the female form is something of a wonder and to many an artist and beholder in general. There are many different forms of artwork paying homage to women including Whistlers Mother, Mona Lisa etc. Today of course we can also achieve greatness in art from the still camera.

Female form photography explained –

Female form photography is almost as it suggests. It is the capturing of the female form image while she poses for photographic purposes. There are many competent photographers today with established photography businesses specializing in different modes of female form photography. These modes include both commercial and artistic strands, often both in one.

Why female form photography?

As indicated earlier, female photography is an evergreen topic of interest for men mostly. But just why is it so popular even after so many centuries?? By now, it seems almost all poses and art expressions of a woman have been captured by the camera. However, it is still in vogue! These are the probable reasons for the sustenance of the female form photography:

– A woman’s body has been a symbol of reverence for men. A woman has always stood for beauty, truth and purity beyond the reach of men. Capturing those delicate moments in a single expression creates ripples in the photography market.

– The next obvious reason for the added interest is the physical attraction that men have for women. Female anatomy photography is a definite yes for them.

– Last but not least is money. Female photography fetches lots of money. Photographers have been known to become wealthy quickly in this arena. As a result, female nude photographs are always in demand.

However, no matter what the reasons are for the photographer, it is the ultimate affect the photograph captures that is important.

Some female form photography tips

Clothes on or no clothes, females have always been a favorite subject of photography. However, it takes talent and perseverance to get the exact expression that would make your photos world famous. If you need some tips about female form photography, then given below are few start ups that would hopefully help you along.

– Find the right model for your photograph!

Getting a subject for your photograph is a tough job for any photographer – especially if your aim is to take intimate photographs. However, if it is simply facial expressions that matter, then even your mother, daughter, wife or sister would do. It is the expression you want right? I’m sure it would be apparent, that if it involves some degree of nudity, then it is better you hire a professional model who would be more comfortable posing.

– Background for stills

The background needs special attention when it comes to photographing female forms. Viewers usually relate better to a serene setting that matches her delicate lines. Usually, the studio is the best place to do the shoot as you can adjust your settings and be in control of lighting. If outdoor shooting is your interest, then you’ll need to be prepared with equipment for highlighting contrasts etc. Hint: A darker background gives better clarity to the female form.

– Lights, Camera, and click….

The lighting is of paramount vitality if you want your images to be perfect. It is always better to have the lighting focused on the female either from behind or the sides. Directly on the face would have two disadvantages; the light on the face would not capture the perfect expression which angled lighting or background lighting would provide. Moreover, light on the face would make any one uncomfortable and promote squinting!

– Keep your distance!

When you are shooting your model, make sure you are away from her!! Use a variety of lenses. Avoid moving in too close when you are capturing the most detailed moments of her face, keeping some distance will help immensely. It would make her feel comfortable and result in better and more diversified expressions.

Female photography gives you immense scope to show off the talent that you have as a photographer. Well, they say “There is a woman behind every man’s success”. This cliché can’t be more appropriate than in this sector of photography!!

Aviation Careers For Online Aviation Degree Holders

Aviation Careers

Aviation is very fascinating profession. It has major impact on economic condition of world. Aviation industry not only include pilot/flyers only, all others working beyond the cockpit are also belong to aviation. Aviation professionals works in different departments of aviation industry. These departments include aircraft design, system engineering, test piloting, search and rescue, human factors, air traffic control, jet mechanics, electrical engineering, computer systems, airport management, space exploration and customer service. You will explore ample opportunities in aviation industry. Aviation or aerospace industry can broadly divided into:

o Flight operations o Airport management o Air traffic and navigation services o Aviation maintenance and repair o Passenger and freight services o Ground handling and emergency services o Weather services o Design and construction o Aviation law o Communication o Legislation and enforcement o Aviation administration o Ancillary services o Aviation safety o Miscellaneous functions o Aviation Medicine

Airline Careers

Airlines are considered as one of the largest employer in economic industry. People may think that airline careers are limited pilots and flight attendants. The situation is entirely different numbers of careers are available in airline. High school students to college degree holders with specialized training in aviation can join different careers in airline. Following are some careers in airline.

o Airport Manager o Fixed-base Operator Manager o Line person o Station Manager o Scheduling Coordinator o Flight Dispatcher o Air Traffic Controller o Safety Inspector o Concession Workers o Fire and Crash Rescue o Ground Attendant o Ramp Service Personnel o Cabin Maintenance Mechanic o Ramp Planner o Customer Service Representative o Ticket Agent o Reservation Sales Agent o Flight Attendant o Baggage Handler o Sky Cap o Cargo Handler o Air Freight/Cargo Agent o Passenger Service Agent

Engineering Careers

Engineers play several roles in aircraft manufacturing. Students with college degrees and specific technical training can join engineering careers in aviation. Following are some engineering careers in aviation.

o Manufacturing Engineers o Aeronautical, Aerospace, Civil, Electrical, Mechanical Engineers

Pilot Careers

Many options are also available for pilots other than airlines. Commercial pilot certificate, second class medical certificate and specialized training are necessary to join aviation as pilot. Airline Transport Rating and first class medical certificates are also prerequisite to join aviation as pilot for some pilot careers. Different pilot careers are available in aviation include following

o Agriculture Pilot o Air Traffic Reporting Pilot o Airline Pilot o Helicopter Pilot o Corporate Pilot o Air Taxi Pilot o Flight Instructor o Military Pilot o Astronaut

Aircraft Maintenance & Manufacturing

Aircraft manufacturing companies assemble wide variety of aircraft such as Boeing and Airbus, Pilatus, Cessna and Eclipse. These aircraft manufacturing companies offer many careers in aircraft manufacturing and maintenance in aviation industry. Working as professional in aircraft maintenance & manufacturing you will be designing airplanes of tomorrow from single-engine personal aircraft to huge aircraft. Highly skilled engineers and technician are eligible to join this career. College degree holders can work as engineer while technician, mechanics and assemblers are required to have high school diploma. Avionics specialist is also very demanding career in aviation. Avionics specialist installs and service aircraft electronic. Following is the list of important careers available in aircraft maintenance & manufacturing.

o Airframe or Power Plant Mechanic o Avionics Specialist o Electrical Installers & Technician o Tool, Jig & Fixture Maker o Machine Tool Operator o Sheet Metal Fabrication o Assembly Installation o Quality Control Technician

Government Careers for Aviation Professional

U.S. government provides number of opportunities in aviation industry. Federal Aviation Administration, National Transportation Safety Administration (NTSB) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are the largest government employer providing jobs for aviation professionals. Career opportunities available in government for aviation specialist are as follows

o Accident Investigator o Aeronautical Engineer o Aerospace Engineers o Air Traffic Controller o Aviation Attorney o Information Systems Specialist o Operations Supervisor o Safety Inspector o Security Specialist o Technicians (Avionics/Electronics)

Salary Information for Various Careers in Aviation

Following is the average per year salary information for some careers in aviation.

o Airport Careers can earn year from $30821 to 91,563 o Avionic specialist can earn from $40,000 to $70,000 o Engineering and Aerospace can earn from $24,000 to $200,000 o Pilot can earn from $16,000 to $140,340

Aviation profession is vital part of modern society. Demand for qualified professionals is increasing day by day for various careers in the field of aviation. Aviation industry offers number of aviation career opportunities to personals with diverse interest, skills and backgrounds. It depends on personal interest which career you want to join in aviation industry. To become professional in any field of aviation you have to gain any degree in the field of aviation sciences. Different degrees from entry level to advance level are available in aviation.

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The History Of Yoga

No one knows exactly how old yoga is. It originated as long as 10,000 to 5000 years ago. It was passed down orally and has gone through much evolution. The earliest reference to Yoga was found when archeological excavations were made in the Indus valley – an amazing powerful and influential civilization in the early antique period. This sophisticated culture developed around the Indus river and the long gone Sarasvati river in northern India, on the border towards Pakistan and had sewage systems, baths as early as 2,600 BC.

While many religions continue to want to make yoga their own creation, it belongs to all of us. It has many facets that can be found in the Hindu and Buddhist faith, but the basic principals are universal and based on “the eight limbs of yoga”, which can be found in all religions.

The History of Yoga is defined as four periods:

Vedic Period, Pre-Classical Period, Classical Period, Post Classical Period and the Modern Period

History of Yoga

Yoga is said to be as old as civilization itself but the oral transmission of the practice, has left several gaps in its history. Earliest archeological evidence relating to yoga’s existence is found in Mohenjodaro seals excavated from the Indus valley, depicting a figure seated in a traditional yoga pose. The stone seals place Yoga’s existence around 3000 B.C.

The Vedic Period

The next reference to yoga is found in the Rig Veda, the oldest sacred text in the world. The Vedas, dating back to 1500 and 1200 BC, are a collection of hymns, mantras and brahmanical rituals that praised a greater being. Yoga is referred to in the book as yoking or discipline without any mention of a practice or a method to achieve this discipline. The Atharva Veda too mentions yoga with a reference to controlling the breath.

Pre-Classical Period

The creation of the Upanishads, between 800 to 500 BC, marks the period called Pre-Classical Yoga. The word Upanishad means to sit near and implies that the only way a student could learn the truths inscribed in the texts was by sitting close to a guru.

The Maitrayaniya Upanishad outlined a six-fold path to liberation. This six-fold yoga path included controlling the breath (pranayama), withdrawing the senses (pratyahara), meditation (dhyana), concentration (dharana), contemplation (tarka), and absorption (samadhi). Patanjali’s Yoga Sutra was later to mirror these paths with greater elucidation and a few additions.

Two yoga disciplines gained prominence at this time: karma yoga (path of action or ritual) and jnana yoga (path of knowledge or study of the scriptures). Both paths led to liberation or enlightenment. The Bhagavad-Gita, composed around 500 BC later added the bhakti yoga (the path of devotion) to this path.

It was at the time of the Upanishads that the idea of ritual sacrifice was internalized and became the idea of sacrifice of the ego through self-knowledge, action and wisdom. This remains an important part of yoga’s philosophy today. As with the Vedas, the Upanishads contained nothing of what we would term as yoga asana practice today. The first and probably most important presentation of yoga came in the next period.

Classical Period

Written some time in the second century, Patanjali’s Yoga Sutras created a milestone in the history of yoga, defining what is now known as the Classical Period. This set of 195 sutras (aphorisms) is considered to be the first systematic presentation of yoga, and Patanjali is revered as the father of yoga.

Patanjali defined the eight-limbed path of yoga (ashtanga yoga), which described a practical treatise on living and laid out a path for attaining harmony of the mind, body and soul. Strict adherence to which would lead one to enlightenment. The sutras still serve as a guideline for living in the world, although modern yoga no longer sees the need to master the eight limbs in succession.

Post-Classical Period

It was in this period that the belief of the body as a temple was rekindled and yogis designed a practice to rejuvenate the body and to prolong life. It was no longer necessary to escape from reality; instead the focus was more living in the moment and on the correct path. The exploration of the spiritual and the physical halves and the need to harmonize the mind, body and spirit led to the creation of Tantra yoga, to cleanse the body and mind, and to Hatha yoga in the ninth or tenth century.

Modern Period

Yoga in its present avatar owes a lot to learned gurus who traveled west to spread the benefits of yoga, or researched and created different schools of yoga. In 1893 Swami Vivekanada addressed the Parliament of World Religions in Chicago and spoke about Raja yoga. Swami Sivanada wrote several books on yoga and philosophy and introduced the five principles of yoga. J.Krishnamurti, the prolific Indian philosopher, influenced thousands with his writings and teachings on Jnana yoga.

The defining epicenter of modern day yoga, as practiced in the west, began with Krishnamacharya, Mysore India in 1931.

T Krishnamacharya opened the first Hatha yoga school in the 1920s. Three of Krishnamacharya’s most famous pupils were-Pattabhi Jois, who developed the school of Ashtanga vinyasa yoga, Indra Devi who introduced yoga to Hollywood, and B.K.S. Iyengar, who created Iyengar yoga known for its attention to body alignment and for its use of props.

Since then, many more yoga gurus have become pioneers, popularizing yoga and finding new styles in keeping with the changing times. Today there are limitless styles of yoga, all based on ingredients from the different paths of yoga (see: The Paths of Yoga).

Yoga in America has been more focused on the Asana side of the practice, but a true yogi knows there is much more to the experience. I always advise students to try different styles and you will find one that gives you the most enrichment.

Enjoy you spiritual journey…